History of Ioannina
It is not known precisely when the town of Ioannina was built. But it was sure that in any case it was built in 528 after Christ when the Ioustinianos decided to build the castle of Ioannina in continuity of his general drawing for the fortification of Byzantium, the city was already existed. The name "Ioannina" in any case first showed up in the 7th century. In 1204 Michael Aggelos the Komninos makes also the city seat of Despotat of Epirus, also therefore begins the growth of the city while it becomes the capital of the prefecture. In 1430 become pole of fighting between various claimants, but it is occupied finally from the Turks. This season it accomplishes to ensure particularly important social, economically and religious privileges. The bigger growth however the city has started to know during the Ottoman domination between 1787 and 1822 on Ali Pashas. The city of Ioannina became the capital of Ali Pasha universe and a big administrative centre, thing that had as a result to turn in the city the interest of the entire Europe. The Ali Pashas organised the city at the models of big European states, it strengthened the arts, letters and the education, it contributed in the more general intellectual growth of the entire region, manufactured work and the economic and cultural life of the city of Ioannina but at extension of the wider region and of the entire Epirus, it was also developed particularly. The city of Ioannina is characterized henceforth as "capital of all learning". Despite the bloody fights of the Greeks and the growth of national feeling, the release of the Turks started in the city of Ioannina finally in 1912-13 with the Balkan wars and concretely with the Treaty of Bucharest.
The adventures of the region however do not finish still. At the duration of the Second World War, so much with their Italians as with the Germans, the city of Ioannina and the entire Epirus pass new ordeals. A lot of villages existed scary destructions at the duration of the possession that expired in 1944. Absolute destruction however came immediately afterwards during the civil war, causing enormous economic crisis in the wider region. This led to an intense migratory current to Germany mainly and also to America, depriving thus the region from an important human potential.
Calendar of Events:
- 6th century after Christ: FOUNDATION OF THE CITY
The foundation of the city of Ioannina, is attributed in the Ioustiniano, the 6th century after Christ. The first presence of the city that called Ioannina, in the historical sources, is met in the proceeding of the session in 879 that became in Istanbul and the second, in year 1020, in the universe of the Emperor Basilios Voulgaroktonos.
- 6th century after Christ-1082: BYZANTINE PERIOD - At the Byzantine period and for a very long time later, the city of Ioannina seems that it was limited only inside the fortress.
- in 1082: The city of Ioannina is occupied by Voimoundo, son of Rovertos Guiskardos
- in 1185: Is speculated destruction of the city of Ioannina, from the Normandian infantry, under the orders of Goulielmos the second, king of Sicily.
- in 1204: DESPOTAT OF EPIRUS - Occupation by the Micheal Aggelos Komninos, who establishes thus the dynasty of despots of the Epirus, with capital the city of Arta. Since then, the city of Ioannina follow the historical developments of the Despotat of Epirus, that, extended from the Dyrrahio up to Naupactos will play the role of Byzantine bulwark, adversely in the repeated raids of Francs, Venetian, Albanians and Serbs. On the days of Micheal the first Aggelos, the city of Ioannina seems to be developed and thrive. According to historical sources, at this period, are assembled in the city of Ioannina official and scholars refugees from Istanbul, afterwards the occupation of this, from the Francs. Also, at this period – in 1206- are marked renovation of walls of fortress and foundation, in the Abbey of Spanos - the Faculty of helping the people, in the ancient Abbey of Saint Nikolaos Stratigopoolos, the homonym Faculty.
- in 1265: The city of Ioannina is granted, from the Nikiforos the first Aggelos Komninos, in the emperor of Nice - Micheal the 7thPalaiologos.
- in 1282: Afterwards the death of Micheal the seven Palaiologos, the city of Ioannina come back in the Despotat of Epirus, under the power of Nikiforos the first Aggelos Komninos. At this period, is marked also the transport of seat of ecclesiastical Despotat in the city of Ioannina, the bishopric of which appears to be upgraded in metropolis, because the foundation in Naypactos of catholic archdiocese, with the concession of the city in Philippos Tarantinos.
- in 1296: With the death of Nikiforos the first Aggelos Komninos, undertakes the power of the city of Ioannina and Epirus, the widower Anna - as delegate of their son Thomas the first. At the duration of her power, is achieved the support of Byzantines, to reject of pressures of Andegavon. Thus, is sent, in the city of Ioannina, royalty army, under Ioannis Laskaris, which then wards the Despotat, according to the willing of the emperor of Andronikos B.
-in 1318: With the murder of Thomas the first, last one of the dynasty of despots of Epirus, Aggelos Komninos, the city of Ioannina become pole of fighting between Byzantines, Andegavon and Serbs. Finally, the city of Ioannina is included in the Byzantium, after the intervention of Ioannis Syrgjannis from the Veratio, which convinced the people of Ioannina, to declare faith and subjugation in Androniko the second, so that they acquire his goodwill. In this agreement of subjugation, they are owed two chrysovoula (1319 and 1321) of Andronikos the second that are very revealingly for the history of the city of Ioannina and for the development of feudal relations.
- in 1319-1339: PERIOD OF BYZANTINE SOVEREIGNTY - At this period, they successively undertook the power in the city of Ioannina, Nikolaos Orsinis, named - Ioannis the second Komninos Aggelodoykas, the spouse of Anna Palaiologina - as delegate of their son of Nikiforos the second, and finally Ioannis Aggelos.
-in 1339: SERBIAN SOVEREIGNTY - The Byzantine sovereignty in the city of Ioannina, is interrupted because become her occupation by the Serbs. Epirus, Thessaly and Macedonia are occupied by the Serb krali –Stefano Ntousan (1331-1355). The Serbian sovereignty facilitates Albanian teams that comes in and made their homes in the Epirus, exterminating the Greek population.
-in 1359: DEFEAT IN THE BATTLE OF ACHELOOS - The Nikiforos the second (1356-1359), son of the despot of the Epirus –Ioannis the second of - Duke Orsinis, afterwards the death of Stefanos Dusan, tries stops the Albanian invasion in Epirus, fighting and trying to get together the expelled Greeks. Unfortunately the effort fails, when the Nikiforos the second loses and dies in the battle of Acheloos in 1359. The Unhindered henceforth Albanians, descends and fall out the Greeks from their hearths in the Epirus. Albanian stays, compel many in number royal families that lived in the region of Vagenetias (the region opposite from Corfu in enough depth), to resort to the Ioannina.
-in 1367: Concession of Ioannina from the new Serb souvereign –Simeon Oyresis, in his groom - Thomas Preloumpos, or Preloumpovits, and southern Epirus in the Albanian heads of houses Mpoua and Liosa. The power of Preloumpovits, was elected tyrannian, after runned wildy and taxed the Ioannian people, it exiled their Metropolite and located the ecclesiastical fortune, which it shared in his Serb partisans. Objective of Serb despot of Epirus Preloumpovits was the weakening of the Greek element and the national alteration. Against this callous arrangement, the Albanian Ioannian people are brought, at information, that they asked their protection from, Albanian soldiers. Thus, begin Albanian raids at the Ioannina and led the ThomasPreloumpovits, in 1375, to rebuild the castle of the city of Ioannina.
- in 1380: The Albanian raids and the appearance of Ottomans in the Hellenic space, lead the Prelioumpovits to approach with Emmanouil the second the Palaiologo.
- in 1384: The tyrannical despotism of Thomas Prelioumpovits expires with his murder and his widow, Maria Aggelina Palaiologina, undertakes the power of the city.
- in 1385: THE COOPERATION WITH VENICE - In order to faced the threat of the raids of the Albanian leaders, becomes despot of the city of Ioannina the Eso nti Mpouontelmonti from Firenze, after an invitation from the Greek and Serb sovereigns of the city of Ioannina. The new sovereign, restores the metropolis in her seat and applies prudent administration opposite to the residents. However, the Mpouontelmonti, pressed from the continuous Albanian raids and besieged from Spatas, is forced to ask the protection of sultan Moyrat the first, therefore also is marked the first presence of Turkish forces in Ioannina.
- in 1390: Are marked the first Ottoman invasions in the wider region of Epirus.
- in 1401: The Venetians take by their own the Parga and progressive, a lot of vital points of Epirus. Also, emerges in the limelight the nephew of Mpouontelmontis, earl of Kefallinia and Zakynthos –Karolos the first Tokkos, that envisions the reconstitution of Greek despotat of Epirus and strengthening of Epirus Hellenism.
-in 1408: With the death of Mpouontelmontis, in 1408/9, the power undertakes the Karolos the first Tokkos, duke of Kefallinia, whose, after he loses it from the Albanian Mpoua Spata, it reoccupies in 1417/8 and he maintains the power until his death, in 1429. Karolos the first Tokkos develops the city of Ioannina economically and intellectually and it strengthens the despotat.
- in 1416: The Karolos the first the Tokkos, realises successful expedition in the city of Arta (in 1416) and destruct the Albanian sovereignty in the Southern Epirus.
The Karolos the first the Tokkos succeeds the Karolos the second Tokkos (in 1429-1448).
- in 1431: OTTOMAN SOVEREIGNTY - The conflict with the Albanians and the competitions of mansions of houses of the Epirus that often were reconciled, or even made concessions in the Ottomen sovereignty, did not allow the creation of non-Turkish forehead. Thus, the Ottoman progressive extend their sovereignty in the entire Epirus. The city of Ioannina is occupied peacefully by Ottomen (in 1431), under the Sinan Pashas and is established the Turkish sovereignty that lasts 482 years, up to 1913. The Ottomen give in the people of Ioannina big privileges: live in the castle and they check the canon, they are exempted from each violent transport and from the kids that they have taken them an make them slaves, they maintain their churches, they have ecclesiastical court and they continue collecting the incomes of their grounds, with alone term –serving the High Gate. Also important, it was also the privilege that allowed in the Christian landowners to keep intact their fortunes, with the engagement to participate in the military expeditions of the Sultan.
15th century - Afterwards the complete predominance of the Ottomen and up to the beginning of 17th century, under Turkish sovereignty the city of Ioannina present fall and decline, because the increasing corruptness of the Ottoman state.
- in 1611: THE REVOLUTION OF DIONISIOS THE PHILOSOPHER
Is marked the revolutionary movement of Metropolite Larissa-trj'kis Dionisios of named Philosopher-dog-philosopher that is not crowned with success.
RESULTS : Ottomen, in reprisal for the revolt of Dionisios, suppress the privileges of the people of Ioannina, to them fly outside from the castle and pass in the new way of "governing of" the Epirus. The ground Epirus - more, knows the Turkish savagery in all the greatness, while the tortures, rapes, murders of innocent villagers and nuns, the pillages, the heavy taxation and the violent islamization, composes the frame of existence of Greeks at the 17th century. The solution for the people of the city of Ioannina in order to escape from the fury of the Ottomen, is to go to stay in another place or in the big urban centres, or to change statement. The change of way of Ottoman governing, allows the reappearance Albanian people in the entire Epirus and the installation of Jewish refugees that left in order for them to escape the persecutions from Spain.
17th century - The 17th century constitutes the beginning of acne of the city of Ioannina, which climaxes in second half of 18th, with the growth of trade and manufacture. This growth leads to important demographic urban concentration.Also, the city of Ioannina presents also brilliant intellectual tradition of centuries. Already from 1206 is dated the foundation of the two faculties in the Abbeys Spanos Mrs Ntilios, where taught and became apprentice eminent scholars and Philosophers. With this faculties was maintained in the Epirus the Greek education and was cultivated the Greek letters and the lettered delivery up to the season of urban transformation. From the means of 17th century, people that loved the work of Ioannina, influenced from the European enlightenment, they financed the foundation of new faculties in the city of Ioannina. Thus, were founded, in the city of Ioannina, the faculties of Abbot Epifaniou (in 1648), that is called small, the faculty Gkoumas (in 1676), that is called big, Maroytsaia (in 1746), the Kaplaneios (in 1797) and later the Zosimea (in1828) that exist even today and makes very good work.
18th century - At the 18th century, the city of Ioannina is elected the more important intellectual-cultural centre of the new Hellenism and of the before-the-revolution intellectual Greece, second afterwards Istanbul. The surge of Greek element that it sought shelter from the Ottoman persecutions, they increase demographic the city of Ioannina. Indicative of the economic acne is, that the people of Ioannina that were making out that subjects come first from all the Greeks in the Venice.
The appearance of Kosmas of Aitolos (in 1775-1778) and the tours (and from the city of Ioannina), with his prompts for the foundation of schools and reinforcement of Christian faith, stop the Ottoman drawings and help in the survival of national self-knowledge and the intellectual rebirth.
- in 1769: The absolute destruction of Moschopoleos (in 2 September) and the generalised persecution of residents of the Northerner of the Epirus from Albanian raids, prompt many to install itself in the city of Ioannina. Those who were taken place on two centuries in the city of Ioannina, they affected in the ideological background of the people of Ioannina. The continuous persecutions and oppression, as well as the surge of refugees and scared Greeks, it prompts in insemination the sperm of revolution. Many of the people of Ioannina, became partisans of beginnings of French Revolution. This ideological change is not foreigner with the direct and unobjectionable orientation of the people of Ioannina to the idea of their release and to the preaching of Kosmas Aitolos, his Riga of also Friendly Company. Is not accidental the make, that Athanassios Tsakalof, from the founders of the Friendly Company, came from the city of Ioannina, neither that from 1816 and a lot of tradesmen, politicians and intellectual people of Ioannina are afterwards brought they have followed up in this. Moreover, by irrefutable sources, we know about the action of the Friendly people of Ioannina, in the city and in particular in the entire courtyard of Ali Pashas. By them more important are brought the Manthos Butler, Al. Moutsos, G. Tourtouris, I. Kolettis, I. Vilaras, Sp. Kolovos etc.
- in 1787: ALI PASHAS
The Ali - Pashas, becomes the king of the city of Ioannina, and in order to consolidates his place, afterwards his spectacular rise opposite in his powerful opponents – kings of Albania, time the mask of protector slaves and contributes in the historical resurgence of memory of Kosmas Aitolos, so that it acquires popular bases, with his final aim from the Gate. On his season, climaxes the urbanisation of the city of Ioannina and develops in the bigger urban centre of the before-the-revolution Greece. More specifically, the Ali Pashas for his own safety and enrichment limits initially also then persecutes kings with special advantages (spachides) and extends the conditions of urban growth of the city of Ioannina. It repairs fortress (1812 - 1815), opens streets to the Arta, Thessaly and Fairy tales, subjugates the Sterea Hellas and Peloponnese, builds palaces, founds military faculty with French professors, in which are going to graduate the most famous chieftains of Greek Revolution and encourages the growth of merchandising relations. At this season, the local market of the city of Ioannina, is included among more important in the Hellenic space. In any case, the positive points of the policy of Ali Pashas to the slaves that work for him are good, as the freedom to believe at any god you want, promotion of trade –be it with primitive means, the protection of operation of Greek schools and a lot of other, that aimed in the maintenance of thin balances, did not stand capable to compensate the violence, the arbitrariness, the terrorism and the oppression in all the sectors of administration that handled the cunning Tepelenis and his sons, as for example in 1809 the cutting of the head of Katsantonis and the drowned of the Miss-Frosinis who was a beautiful woman. Finally, this former competitor of Albanians and Turkish kings, elects itself in unique sovereign the region, - it fixes the city of Ioannina as his capital and Greek as official language of his small state and promotes the trade and the industry in the entire Epirus. It is the season where the Ioannina become: "first in the war machines, in the money and in the letters"!
- in 1816: Horrible epidemic of plague affects the entire Epirus, affects also the city of Ioannina causing at estimate, the death of the 1/5 of the residents.
- in 1820: The Ali Pashas, destructs the city on 25 August and all the houses – even minus - they are lost in the flames.
- in 1822: The continuous political courtships of Ali Pashas with the Big Forces (England-France-Russia) in order for them to help him to become autonomous, do not achieve. On the contrary it leads to his condemnation for betrayal (1820), defeat and the death, when it is overcome by the army of Sultan. The city of Ioannina, suffers from lasting several months (17months) siege and suffers enough destructions.
-in 1822-1830: The fall of Ali Pashas, signals a period of decline for half-destroy of the city of Ioannina. At the period of the Greek revolution, the people of Ioannina are not able to participate in the national revolution because the presence of many Turkish troops, that uses the entire Epirus as base of campaign for their expeditions to the revolution Greek in south.
-in 1830: The predominance of Greek revolution and the creation of free Greek state, involve generally Turkish reprisal in the entire Epirus. Also, it begins to be aroused the Albanian nationalism and the continuous attitudes, revolts and revolution of Albanians at Turks, have as a result new trials for the Greek population. From continuous –low intensity war that is carried out locally in this period, goes refugees in the city. Because the strategic and the economic importance of the city, the re-establishment of martial destructions becomes rapidly also the city of Ioannina recovers their economic and intellectual acne.
- in 1838: The cutting of the head of Georgios.
-in 1854: Revolutionary movement of the people of Epirus fall in the blood by the Ottomans, with result new trials for the Greek people that lived in Epirus and the people of Ioannina and from this new surge of refugees in the city.
- in 1869: Big fire causes important destructions, however the city rebuilt with fast rythms.
- in 1870: Beginning of Macedonian Fight that however –except Macedonia - it is also carried out in the entire Epirus and in the Thrace. In the the city of Ioannina, are constituted guerrilla armed teams and secret company. The Epirus Company prepared decisive the territory for the winning pass of Greek Army at the first Balkan War.
- in 1913: Release of the city of Ioannina from the Greek Army of 21 February 1913. The Turkish possession of the city of Ioannina finishes after 483 years.
Retirement from the city (Turkish-Muslim, with maternal language Greek), apart from certain –measured in the fingers - families.
- in 1917: ITALIAN POSSESSION OF THE CITY OF IOANNINA
In the frames of the first World War, the multinational forces of French General Saray! had been expanded by Thessalonica and had occupied big department of Epirus. Italy had made the attack via sea, aiming at the independence of Albania and the reduction of Hellenism to profit of Albanian populations. The Italian possession of the city of Ioannina, expires on 28 September 1917.
- in 1940: GREEK-ITALIAN WAR
The city of Ioannina suffer bombardments from the Italian Aviation and more generally trials of the war.
- in 1941: ITALIAN POSSESSION
Afterwards the occupation of Greece from the Germans, the city of Ioannina and the entire Epirus are given in the Italian ball of possession.
- in 1944: 25 MARCH – THE JEWS "HOLOCAUST OF" THE CITY OF IOANNINA
The German occupied beginnings, assemble a big department of Jews population (1.850 individuals) and send them in the camp of extermination of third Raich -Aousvits.
-in 1944 as today: The History of the city of Ioannina and of the entire Epirus keeps pace with the History of remainder Greece.